Many People mistakenly believe that American Sign Language (ASL) is English conveyed through signs. Some think that it is a manual code for English, that it can express only concrete information, or that there is one universal sign language used by Deaf people around the world.
Linguistic research demonstrates, however, that ASL is comparable in complexity and expressiveness to spoken languages. It is not a form of English. It has its own distinct grammatical structure, which must be mastered in the same way as the grammar of any other language. ASL differs from spoken language in that it is visual rather than auditory and is composed of precise handshapes and movements.
ASL is capable of conveying subtle, complex, and abstract ideas. Signers can discuss philosophy, literature, politics, education, and sports. Sign language can express poetry as poignantly as can any spoken language and can communicate humor, wit, and satire just as bitingly. As in other languages, new vocabulary items are constantly being introduced by the community in response to cultural and technological change.
ASL is not universal. Just as hearing people in different countries speak different languages, so do Deaf people around the world sign different languages. Deaf people in Mexico use a different sign language from that used in the U.S. because of historical circumstances, contemporary ASL is more like French Sign Language than like British Sign Language.
ASL was developed by American Deaf people to communicate with each other and has existed as long as there have been Deaf Americans. Standardization was begun in 1817 when Laurent Clerc and Thomas H. Gallaudet established the first school for the Deaf in the U.S. Students afterwards spread the use of ASL to other parts of the U.S. and Canada. Traditionally, the language has been passed from one generation to the next in the residential school environment, especially through dormitory life. Even when signs were not permitted in the classroom, the children of Deaf parents (codas), as well as Deaf teachers and staff, would secretly pass on the language to other students. ASL is now used by approximately one-half million Deaf people in the U.S. and Canada.
Since the late 1800's, Deaf people have been discouraged from using ASL. Many well-meaning but misguided educators, believing that the only way for Deaf people to fit into the hearing world is through speech and lip-reading, have insisted that deaf children try to learn to speak English. Some have even gone so far as to tie down Deaf children's hands to prevent them from signing. Despite these and other attempts to discourage signing, ASL continues to be the preferred language of the Deaf community. Far from seeing the use of sign as a handicap, Deaf people regard ASL as their natural language, which reflects their cultural values and keeps their traditions and heritage alive.